Computer Concepts Notes

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这些变化本身可能很细微,然而一回头才发现,无论是技术、学生甚至是教育都在明确地向着令人惊叹,有时甚至是出人意料的方向进步。

Chapter I

八股

Data becomes _______ when it is presented in a format that people can understand and use.

Answer: Information信息

The 0s and 1s used to represent digital data are referred to as _________ digits.

Answer: Binary

All bitmap graphics are photos.

Answer : False

离谱。我能理解反过来为什么是错的;但是photos怎么定义?

Digital photographs are stored as bitmap files.

同理;怎么想 photobitmap都不是同一个赛道的东西啊。

In a formatted text file, ________ signal(s) the beginning and end of a formatting command.

delimiter分隔符

on-demand

A(n) ___________________ stream sends media to a local device where it is stored temporarily, or “buffered,” until there is enough data to begin playback.

A. download; B. live; C. on-demand; D.delayed

Answer: C

unicode

Unicode uses________ bits and provides codes for 65,000 characters.

Unicode 和 UTF-8 有什么区别? - 知乎

Unicode - 16 bits
UTF = UCS Transfer Format

Which of the following is the technique for adding light and shadows to a 3D image?

渲染 on wikipedia

渲染(英语:render,或称为绘制或彩现)在电脑绘图中,是指以软件由模型生成图像的过程。模型是用语言或者数据结构进行严格定义的三维物体或虚拟场景的描述,它包括几何、视点、纹理、照明和阴影等信息。图像是数字图像或者位图图像。渲染用于描述:计算视频编辑软件中的效果,以生成最终视频的输出过程。

extend:

The process of covering a wireframe with surface color and texture is called _________.

Answer: rendering

光追 on wikipedia

光线追踪(英语:ray tracing)是三维计算机图形学中的特殊渲染算法,追踪光线从来源开始照射到物体上,再由物体反射的光线“路径”,由于完整运算所有路径十分消耗运算资源,因此现有光线追踪技术仅运算“目所能及”的光线路径,由于是从玩家视角开始进行运算,有时被误解为光线追踪是追踪“从眼睛发出的光线”。通过这样一项技术生成编排好的场景的数学模型显现出来。这样得到的结果类似于光线投射与扫描线渲染方法的结果,但是这种方法有更好的光学效果,例如对于反射与折射有更准确的模拟效果,并且效率非常高,所以当追求高品质的效果时经常使用这种方法。

线框模型 on wikipedia

线框模型(英语:wireframe model)是真实世界对象的采用直线和曲线的一种骨架表示(skeletal representation)。线框由物体上两个数学上连续光滑的表面相交生成或者用直线或者曲线连接物体顶点得到,通过绘制每一条边就可以将物体映射到计算机屏幕上。

extend:

3D graphics are based on vectors stored as a set of instructions describing the coordinates for lines and shapes in a three-dimensional space. What do these vectors form?

Answer: Wireframe

栅格化 on wikipedia

栅格化(英式英语:rasterisation、美式英语:rasterization),又称光栅化,是将向量图形格式表示的图像转换成位图以用于显示器或者打印机输出的过程。

extend:

A vector graphic can be converted into a bitmap graphic through a process called _________.

就是光栅化

文字游戏

Image _______________ creates a panoramic image by combining two or more photographs that have overlapping edges.

the differences between stitch & compositing

Image Stitching

影像拼接(image stitching)是指将两张或更多的有重叠部分的影像,拼接成一张全景图或是高分辨率影像的技术。影像拼接有两大步骤:影像对准(image alignment)和影像混合(blending)

Compositing is the process or technique of combining visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene.

Compositing最典型的应用:绿幕。

Compression

_______ compression can be applied to each frame of a video.

Answer: Intraframe帧内压缩

________ compression stores only the pixels that change color from one frame to the next.

Answer: Interframe帧间压缩

Video compression can be expressed as a compression ______.

可以用 compression ratio压缩比来表示。

Video files are stored in ________ formats that hold the compressed video stream and an audio stream.

Container format on wikipedia

别被Chinglish误导了:Container Format其实是“视频文件格式”,以将视频和音频放在一个文件中。

others?

Digital ________ captures moving images as bits, rather than on film.

digital cinematography on wikipedia

又是Chinglish的锅,这里的film应该翻译成 胶片。所以答案就是 cinematography摄影。

Analog footage can be digitized using video _____ equipment.

Analog footage还需继续查阅,这道题确实比较confusing…

Answer: Capture

Speech recognition software analyzes the sounds of your voice and converts each word into groups of ________.

phonemes音素

physical

In a digital camera, a charge-coupled device’s (CCD’s) ________ correspond(s) to pixels.

Answer : 感光单元

Video

When 4:3 videos are displayed in a widescreen player, they are bordered by the black bars of a(n) _______.

建议删掉。

这东西原文中的表达 letterboxpillarbox模式根本没法在中文中找到对应;这里面相对较好的答案是:黑边。

To digitally record sound, __________ of a sound wave is/are collected at periodic intervals and stored as numeric data in an audio file.

Answer : sample采样

About bitrate

bitrate on wikipedia

Image

An undesirable jagged appearance of a graphics image is referred to as _______.

Answer: Pixelation像素化

Which of the following file extensions is NOT a vector graphic?

常见的向量图文件格式:SVG, WMF, EPS, PDF, CDR or AI

位图文件格式:JPEG(有损), PNG(无损), APNG, GIF, WebP, BMP and MPEG4

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_graphics#File_formats

Eight-bit color depth is also called True Color.

Color depth on wikipedia

是24位。

Chapter II

八股

A(n) __________ is a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions.

Answer : Computer

Instructions that tell a computer how to carry out processing tasks are referred to as a computer _______.

Answer : program

_______ is the term used for the components of a digital device designed to hold data permanently.

Answer : Storage存储

A large, closet-sized computer capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users is most likely a __________ computer.

Answer : mainframe大型机

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%A4%A7%E5%9E%8B%E8%AE%A1%E7%AE%97%E6%9C%BA

大型计算机(英语:mainframe),又称大型机、大型主机、主机服务器等,是从IBM System/360开始的一系列计算机及与其兼容或同等级的计算机,主要用于大量数据和关键项目的计算,例如银行金融交易及数据处理、人口普查、企业资源规划等。

其实感觉还蛮不好翻译的。

Smartwatches, smartglasses, and fitness trackers can be classified as _______ computers.

Answer : wearable可穿戴

To monitor activity throughout the day, you can wear a(n) __________ tracker. These devices, worn on the wrist or clipped to a pocket, monitor your steps and heart rate.

Answer : ftness健身

有一说一,挺绷不住的。

A(n) ___________ is a special category of laptop, designed to be connected to the Internet for most routine computing activities.

Answer : Chromebook上网笔记本

鉴定为完全不符合国情。

Processor/OS

In 1971, Intel introduced the world’s first microprocessor called the _________.

Answer : Intel 4004 / 4004

The processors that are found in just about all desktop and laptop computers are _____ compatible.

Answer : x86

Processors based on ____ technology dominate tablet computers and smartphones.

Answer : arm

The ____________ is the part of the microprocessor that performs arithmetic operations, such as addition and subtraction.

Answer : ALU,算术逻辑单元

When a program begins, the memory address of the first instruction is placed in a part of the microprocessor’s control unit called a(n) __________.

Answer : IP/instruction pointer

A(n) ____________ is special high-speed memory that allows a microprocessor to access data more rapidly than from memory located elsewhere on the system board.

Answer : Cache

If a program exceeds its allocated space, the operating system may use an area of the hard disk or other storage device as _______ memory.

Answer : virtual

Virtual Memory vs. Swap Memory

A(n) _____________ contains parts of the operating system necessary to boot your computer and diagnose system problems after a hard drive failure or software malfunction.

系统修复盘;Recovery Drive

Physical

_______ storage represents data as microscopic light and dark spots on a disc surface.

Answer : 视觉

A USB _____ is an inexpensive device that turns one USB port into multiple ports.

Answer : Hub

In a display device, __________ is the distance in millimeters between like-colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

dot pitch on wikipedia

Answer : dp 点间距

A graphics card contains a(n) __________ and special video memory, which store screen images as they are processed but before they are displayed.

Answer : GPU

A(n) ____________ printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper to form characters and graphics.

Answer : ink jet喷墨

A(n) ____________ measures magnetic fields and can be used as a compass to determine orientation relative to magnetic north.

Answer : 磁力计

Many touchscreens have a(n) _________ coating designed to repel the oils deposited by fingertips.

Answer : 疏油层

出的很好,下次不要出这种题了。

Chapter III

八股

In the context of digital devices, the term __________ refers to any component that is required to perform work.

Answer : resource

挺有趣的一个抽象

An operating system ensures that input and output proceed in an orderly manner, using ___________ to collect and hold data while the device is busy with other tasks.

Answer : buffers缓冲区

An operating system uses a(n) ___________ to keep track of the names and locations of files that reside on a storage medium, such as a hard disk.

Answer : file system

A new version or edition of a software product is referred to as a software ___________.

Answer : update

一般upgrade是重大改进/完全不同;update更符合更新的定义。

office suit

A typical _________ window displays a work area, called a workspace, which represents a blank piece of paper.

Answer : word processor

In spreadsheet software, a(n) ___________ is a built-in preset formula.

Answer : function

Popular ___________ software products include Microsoft PowerPoint, iWork Keynote, LibreOffice Impress, and Google Docs Slides.

Answer : presentation

_________ software supplies the tools for combining text, photos, clip art, graphs, animations, and sound into a series of electronic slides that can be shown on a screen or projector.

Answer : presentation

system

When working with Windows, storage devices can also be identified by a device __________.

device letter

其实就是盘符…

Magnetic and optical media are divided into circular ______ and then further divided into pie-shaped ________.

Answer : tracks轨道; sectors扇区

Activities called ___________ involve the microprocessor receiving commands as software carries out tasks and while input arrives from the keyboard, mouse, and other devices.

Answer : 不是kernel而是process

A(n) ___________ operating system provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously.

Answer : multitasking

database

Database software stores data as a series of ____________, which are composed of fields that hold data.

Answer : records

Database software stores data as a series of ____________, which are composed of fields that hold data.

Answer : records

Chapter V

八股

What is the term that is used to describe a computer system that could store literary documents, link them according to logical relationships, and allow readers to comment and annotate what they read?